Appendix E

Table E.1. Socioprofessional characteristics and opinions of nonproblematic utility managers

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility II

 

Utility III

 

Utility V

 

Utility VII

Age

Aged

Of mature years

Aged

Aged

Experience

Little experienced

Experienced

Very experienced

Experienced

Training background in the field of drinking water

Learning on the job, and a three-day training course

Learning on the job

Learning on the job, and a few training sessions

Learning on the job

Percentage of overall work time devoted to drinking water utility management

20 percent

25 percent

30 percent

25 to 30 percent

Level of knowledge of new (2001) QDWR

Good knowledge

Good knowledge

No knowledge

Partial knowledge

Other duties

Road works; sewer; building

Director of Public Works: roads, sewer, etc.

Sewer; public works

Sewer; road works

Table E.1. Socioprofessional characteristics and opinions of nonproblematic utility managers (continued-1)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility II

 

Utility III

 

Utility V

 

Utility VII

Opinion of 2001 QDWR training requirements

Training requirements pertinent

Supplementary training necessary

No specific opinion

Training requirements pertinent, but a little too complex

Training adequacy for 2001 QDWR

Training not adequate; needed to catch up

Training adequate, but needed improvements concerning regulatory follow-up

Training sufficient as things stood (a year from retirement)

Training not adequate; planned to catch up

Satisfaction with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Satisfied

Satisfied

Total satisfaction

Satisfied

Utility management aspects in which 2001 QDWR brought improvements

Water supply safety

Water quality monitoring (control)

Not acquainted enough with new DWR to express an opinion

General knowledge of drinking water issues in rise thanks to new DWR

Utility readiness for full compliance with 2001 QDWR

Not 100 percent ready to apply new DWR; cf. the above-mentioned details

Not totally ready

Not acquainted with new DWR

Not totally ready; especially financially

Table E.1. Socioprofessional characteristics and opinions of nonproblematic utility managers (continued-2)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility II

 

Utility III

 

Utility V

 

Utility VII

Probable period of time needed to achieve full compliance with 2001 QDWR

Needed more than a year to be 100 percent ready to comply with new DWR

Needed a few months to fully comply

No idea; not acquainted with new DWR

Needed 1 through 3 years to be able to fully comply

General opinion of 2001 QDWR

Generally speaking, had a good appreciation of the new DWR

No specific opinion

No knowledge of new DWR

Making involved parties aware of their responsibilities and accountable for them

Specifically noticed 2001 QDWR positive and negative points

Not able to make a judgment

New DWR positive point(s): strengthening of total coliform bacteria testing in small utilities

No knowledge of 2001 DWR

New DWR positive point(s): making training compulsory for all water utility managers

Table E.2. Organizational factor specificities in nonproblematic utilities

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility II

 

Utility III

 

Utility V

 

Utility VII

Networking specificities

QME publications; socioprofessional contacts: consulting engineers; peers

Contacts with consulting engineer firms

Socioprofessional contacts

Socioprofessional contacts: Quebec Water Technicians Association; peers

Year-long assistant availability

Assistant available (responsible for half of work time allotted to utility management)

No assistant

No assistant

No assistant

Temporary substitute availability

No substitute

Substitute available

Substitute available

Substitute available

Way assistant and/or substitute learned job

Assistant learned on the job

Substitute learned on the job

Substitute learned on the job

Substitute learned on the job

Assistant’s/substitute’s training adequacy for 2001 QDWR

Assistant will need even more training to meet new requirements

Substitute will need further training

Substitute will need further training

Substitute’s training is inadequate; needs to catch up

Infrastructure and equipments reliability

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Infrastructure and equipments reliable and efficient

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Table E.2. Organizational factor specificities in nonproblematic utilities (continued)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility II

 

Utility III

 

Utility V

 

Utility VII

Necessity of improvements to infrastructure and equipments in view of 2001 QDWR

Improvements necessary for infrastructure and equipments alike

Some improvements in infrastructure and equipments may be desirable

Improvements needed but not in infrastructure and equipments

Improvements necessary for infrastructure and equipments alike

Kind of improvements needed or expected

Big improvements expected in equipments; some infrastructure changes to come; managing staff: from part time to full time

Improvements: infrastructure and equipments

Improvements: urgently in need of staff

Improvements: equipments, staff

Prioritization of the drinking water issue by local authorities

Drinking water is a major concern for local authorities

Drinking water issues are a priority for local officials, mayor in particular

Drinking water is an important issue for elected representatives

Elected representatives more open-minded about drinking water issues than before

Level of support displayed by local authorities

All possible municipal support offered to utility managers

Vigorous municipal support to water utility managers

Support from local authorities satisfactory (positive attitude)

Rising support from local officials with new DWR

Table E.3. Socioprofessional characteristics and opinions of problematic utility managers

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility I

 

Utility IV

 

Utility VI

 

Utility VIII

 

Utility IX

 

Utility X

Age

Of mature years

Of mature years

Of mature years

Of mature years

Aged

Aged

Experience

Very little experienced

Little experienced

Very experienced

Very little experienced

Experienced

Very little experienced

Training background in the field of drinking water

General basic education in civil engineering, plus learning on the job

Learning on the job

Learning on the job, general secondary education, and catch-up course in water quality

Complementary studies diploma in water sanitation

Learning on the job

Learning on the job

Percentage of overall work time devoted to drinking water utility management

20 percent of work time devoted to the drinking water utility management

25 percent of work time devoted to utility management

25 percent of work time devoted to utility management

50 percent of work time devoted to utility management

10percent of work time devoted to utility management

33 percent of work time devoted to utility management

Level of knowledge of new (2001) QDWR

Good knowledge of 2001 QDWR

Good knowledge of 2001 QDWR

Good knowledge of 2001 QDWR

Good knowledge of 2001 QDWR

Good knowledge of 2001 QDWR

Partial knowledge of 2001 QDWR

Table E.3. Socioprofessional characteristics and opinions of problematic utility managers (continued-1)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility I

 

Utility IV

 

Utility VI

 

Utility VIII

 

Utility IX

 

Utility X

Other duties

Other duties: town planning; road works; sewer; public works

Director of Public Works: road works, sewage, public works

Road works; snow clearance; public works

Sewer; wastewater treatment plant

Whole municipal administration

Road works; building

Opinion of 2001 QDWR training requirements

Supplementary training needed and welcomed to comply with 2001 QDWR

Training requirements pertinent, but will need time to be feasible

Training requirements pertinent

Training requirements pertinent; supplementary training welcomed

Training requirements pertinent

Training requirements acceptable if they do not demand too much time

Training adequacy for 2001 QDWR

Principal manager’s training adequate

Principal manager’s training not yet adequate

Principal manager’s training adequate, but needs to catch up

Principal manager’s training not adequate; needs to catch up

Principal manager’s training not adequate; further training indispensable

Principal manager’s training not adequate; further training necessary

Satisfaction with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Satisfied with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Satisfied with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Satisfied with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Satisfied with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Satisfied with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Satisfied with infrastructure and equipments performance and reliability

Table E.3. Socioprofessional characteristics and opinions of problematic utility managers (continued-2)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility I

 

Utility IV

 

Utility VI

 

Utility VIII

 

Utility IX

 

Utility X

Utility management aspects in which 2001 QDWR brought improvements

Water supply system safer and better manageable because of undergone and upcoming improvements in relation to new DWR

Improvements in water quality control; however, much more time to devote to utility management

Improvements: better water quality control

Improvements: not big for equipments, but significant as for water supply sources (active search for alternative sources under way)

Improvements: most probably more manageable, since safer, water distribution system

Improvements: better utility management through better water quality control

Utility readiness for full compliance with 2001 QDWR

No; in search of technical assistance, financial support from provincial authorities, and of at least one substitute

No; in need of federal/provincial financial contribution

100 percent ready for compliance with 2001 QDWR

No; especially from a technical point of view

No; not straight away

No; human resources available, but undergoing training

Probable period of time needed to achieve full compliance with 2001 QDWR

Could not indicate a deadline for full compliance with 2001 QDWR

Needed less than a year to fully comply with new DWR

Without delay

A year would be probably sufficient to fully comply

2 years needed to be able to fully comply

A year might appear too short of a time to fully comply

Table E.3. Socioprofessional characteristics and opinions of problematic utility managers (continued-3)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility I

 

Utility IV

 

Utility VI

 

Utility VIII

 

Utility IX

 

Utility X

General opinion of 2001 QDWR

Generally speaking, 2001 QDWR are more difficult to comply with but reassuring from a safety standpoint

Generally speaking, satisfied with new DWR

No specific feeling

New DWR came up to expectations as for regulatory control

Satisfied with water supply securitizing

No specific opinion

Specifically noticed 2001 QDWR positive and negative points

2001 QDWR positive point(s): satisfied with the new DWR in their entirety

2001 QDWR negative point(s): too high spending for small municipalities; required water sample numbers too high in relation to municipality size

2001 QDWR positive point(s): saw no negative point

2001 QDWR negative point(s): required water sample numbers might be excessive

2001 QDWR positive/negative point(s): Saw no weak point; may be funding

2001 QDWR negative point(s): a little too much rigor (severe measures)

Table E.4. Organizational factor specificities in problematic utilities

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility I

 

Utility IV

 

Utility VI

 

Utility VIII

 

Utility IX

 

Utility X

Networking specificities

Local journals; QME publications

QME publications; Quebec Municipalities Federation; socioprofessional contacts with QME agents

Journals; contacts with engineers, peers, Quebec Water Sanitation Society; accredited laboratories

“Réseau Environnement”; consulting engineer firms; accredited laboratories; meetings with peers at conferences, seminars, etc.

None

Socioprofessional contacts: consulting engineer firms; participation to seminars

Year-long assistant availability

No assistant

No assistant

Assistant available

Assistant available

No assistant

No assistant

Temporary substitute availability

Substitute available

Substitute available

Substitute available

No substitute

Substitute available

Substitute available

Way assistant and/or substitute learned job

Substitute learned on the job

Substitute learned on the job

Assistant and substitute learned on the job

Assistant learned on the job

Substitute learned on the job

Substitute learned on the job

Assistant’s/substitute’s training adequacy for 2001 QDWR

Substitute’s training inadequate

Substitute’s training inadequate

Both assistant and substitute will need further training

Assistant’s training insufficient; needs to catch up

Substitute’s training insufficient; further training indispensable

Substitute’s training insufficient; further training necessary

Table E.4. Organizational factor specificities in problematic utilities (continued-1)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility I

 

Utility IV

 

Utility VI

 

Utility VIII

 

Utility IX

 

Utility X

Infrastructure and equipments reliability

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Infrastructure and equipments performance acceptable

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Infrastructure and equipments reliable

Necessity of improvements to infrastructure and equipments in view of 2001 QDWR

Improvements needed in infrastructure and equipments in view of 2001 QDWR

Improvements needed in chlorine dosage system: continuous readings, emergency system

Improvements needed in accordance with new DWR

Improvements needed in equipments, flushing methods, checking pumps, and the like

Improvements needed in relation to new DWR

Improvements needed in infrastructure and equipments

Kind of improvements needed or expected

Improvements needed in infrastructure, equipments, and staff

Improvements: equipments and staff

Improvements: equipments and staff training

Improvements: essentially equipments, then infrastructure and staff

Improvements desirable all along the line

Improvements desired: emergency chlorinator, colorimeter (fieldwork kit)

Table E.4. Organizational factor specificities in problematic utilities (continued-2)

Variables or distinctive features

 

Utility I

 

Utility IV

 

Utility VI

 

Utility VIII

 

Utility IX

 

Utility X

Prioritization of the drinking water issue by local authorities

Local officials not prioritizing drinking water issue to desired point

Drinking water is a major concern for local authorities

Local officials not always prioritizing drinking water issue

Drinking water is a major concern for local authorities

Drinking water is a major concern for local authorities

Drinking water is a major concern for local authorities

Level of support displayed by local authorities

Local support not always available: too much discussion and beating about the bush

Sufficient support: priority for local authorities and for citizens

Moderate support from local officials, especially for regulatory compliance

Some support, but not always with dispatch

All needed support from local authorities

Sufficient support from local officials