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Annexe C: The specification of behaviors in the MAGS platform

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This annex aims to present the specification of some behavior patterns of shopping behavior in a mall.

This goal specifies the shopping behavior pattern (go to a shop, store, or kiosk). It is activated if the next destination is shop x. The specification details of this goal are presented in Fig C.1.

This goal is composed of the following sub-goals:

- Sub-Goal Goal Go_To_Perceived_Shop x : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to move to shop x.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Perceive_Shop_x and Precondition_Shop_x_Is_Non_Visited and Precondition Without_Big_Need : In order to move to the shop x, the shopper agent must perceive this shop (perception capability); and it must not have previously visited this shop; and it must not have another objective with a higher priority, such as one related to a need to satisfy (as for example go to a restroom).

  • Body Action Go_To_Perceived_Shop_ x :This action allows the shopper agent to move to the perceived shop x.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Go_To_Perceived_Shop_x_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life–cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Update_Shop_x_Is_Visited :Using this goal, the shopper agent updates the shop x as visited in the shopping list.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Go_To_Perceived_Shop_x_Is_Success and Precondition Attend_Shop_x :The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Update_Shop_x_Is_Visited :This action allows the shopper agent to update its shopping list, and make the shop x as visited in this list.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Update_Shop_x_Is_Visited_Success :This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Save_Visit_Report_Shop_x : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to save the trace of the shop x’s visit.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Update_Shop_x_Is_Visited_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Save_Visit_Report :This action allows the shopper agent to save the trace of its visit to the shop x.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Save_Visit_Report_Shop_x_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Choose_Next_Destination_After_Shop_x : This sub-goal allows the shopper agents to choose its next destination.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Save_Visit_Report_Shop_x_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Choose_Next_Destination : This action allows the shopper agent to choose its next destination after visiting shop x. This destination may be another shop, or another place in the virtual mall.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Choose_Next_Destination_After_Shop_x_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Go_To_Next_Destination_After_Shop_x : This sub-goal allows the shopper agents to move to the next chosen destination within the previous sub-goal.

  • Recurrence: This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Choose_Next_Destination_After_Shop_x_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Go_To_Next_Destination_After_Shop x : This action allows the shopper agent to move to the destination chosen during the previous sub-goal.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Go_To_Next_Destination_After_Shop x : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

This goal allows the shopper agent to move to the restroom in order to satisfy a physiological need, when it feels the need to go to this place. The details of this goal specification are presented in Fig C.2.

This goal is composed of the following sub-goals:

- Sub-Goal Goal Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_ON : This sub-goal updates the shopper agent’s navigation state related to the need big-need of the shopper agent. Therefore, the main target of the shopper agent becomes the search for the restroom in order to satisfy its need.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Need_To_Satisfy_Big_Need : This sub-goal is activated when the agent needs to go to restroom is activated. This rule is triggered when the current value of the dynamic state related to this need is less than its threshold.

  • Body Action Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_ON : This action allows to update the shopper agent’s navigation state to 1.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_ON_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Choose_Next_Destination_Big_Need : This sub-goal represents the shopper agent’s decision-making process when it feels the need to go to restroom.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_ON_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Choose_Next_Destination : This action allows the shopper agent to make decisions about its next destination.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Choose_Next_Destination_Big_Need_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Go_To_Next_Destination_Big_Need : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to move to the next destination chosen during the previous sub-goal.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Choose_Next_Destination_Big_Need_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Go_To_Next_Destination_Big_Need : This action allows the shopper agent to move to the next destination chosen during the previous sub-goal.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Go_To_Next_Destination_Big_Need_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Go_To_Perceived_Restroom : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to move to the restroom.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Perceive_Restroom and Precondition_Need_To_Satisfy_Big_Need : This sub-goal is activated when the shopper agent is already feeling the need to use the restroom; and when it perceives it.

  • Body Action Go_To_Perceived_Restroom : This action allows the agent to move to the perceived toilets.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Go_To_Perceived_Restroom_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Save_Visit_Report_Restroom : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to record the information about its visit of the restroom.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Go_To_Perceived_Restroom_Is_Success and Precondition Attend_Restroom : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed; and the shopper agent attends the restroom in order to satisfy its need.

  • Body Action Save_Visit_Report : This action allows the agent to record the information about the restroom visit.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Save_Visit_Report_Restroom_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_OFF : This sub-goal aims to update the shopper agent’s navigation state related to the need to use the restroom.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Save_Report_Restroom_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_OFF : This action aims to update the shopper agent’s navigation state related to the need to use the restroom.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_OFF : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Initlialize_Dynamic_State_Big_Need : This sub-goal aims to update the shopper agent’s dynamic state related to the need to use the restroom. This update sets the current value of the dynamic state to 0.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Update_Navigation_State_Big_Need_OFF_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Initialize_Dynamic_State_Big_Need : This action aims to update the shopper agent’s dynamic state related to the need to use the restroom.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Initialize_Dynamic_State_Big_Need_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Choose_Next_Destination_After_Restroom : This sub-goal specifies the decision-making process about the next destination after using the restroom.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Update_Navigation_Big_Need_OFF_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Choose_Next_Destination : This action allows the shopper agent to make decisions about the next destination after using the restroom. The agent can take again the destination fixed before feeling the need to go to the toilets.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Choose_Next_Destination_After_Restroom_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Go_To_Next_Destination_After_Restroom : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to visit the destination determined in the previous sub-goal.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Choose_Next_Destination_After_Restroom_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Go_To_Next_Destination : This action allows the shopper agent to visit the destination determined in the previous sub-goal.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Go_To_Next_Destination_After_Restroom_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life cycle as finished with success.

This goal specifies the behavior pattern Leave the mall . We suppose that the shopper agent leaves the mall for two reasons: (1) it can leave the mall normally, when it reaches its time limit planned for shopping, or (2) it can leave the mall in a panic situation (when a problem occurs). Here, we only present the first mode for leaving the mall in a normal situation. If the shopper agent reaches the fixed time limit for its shopping, it decides to leave the mall. The shopping time is recorded in its static state called Shopper_Shopping_Duration . The doors used by the agent to leave the mall can be the entrance door (used to enter the mall), the first perceived door, or the closest door to the agent when it decides to leave the mall. This goal is specified in Fig C.3.

The sub-goals that compose this goal are the following:

- Sub-Goal Goal Update_Navigation_State_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor : This sub-goal aims to update the navigation state related to the desire to leave the mall. Then, the agent’s main target becomes the search of an exit door. This door may be the one the agent used to enter the mall, the first one perceived by the agent, or the closest one when the shopper agent decides to leave the mall.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Need_To_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor and Precondition Have_Limited_Shopping_Time : This sub-goal is activated when the shopper agent reaches the time limit of the shopping trip; and when it has already designated a time limit for this shopping trip.

  • Body Action Update_Navigation_State_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor : This action aims to update the shopper agent’s navigation state concerning leaving the mall.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Update_Navigation_State_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Choose_Next_Destination_To_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to choose the door by which it wishes to leave.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Update_Navigation_State_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Choose_Next_Destination : This action allows the agent to choose the next door by which it wishes to leave.

  • Completion rule Update Goal_Choose_Next_Destination_To_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor This rule contains an action which updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Go_To_Next_Destination_To_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor : This sub-goal allows the agent to move to the exit door determined in the previous sub-goal.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition Goal_Choose_Next_Destination_To_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Go_To_Next_Destination : This action allows the shopper agent to move to the exit door determined in the previous sub-goal.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Goal_Go_To_Next_Destination_To_Exit_Shopping_Mall_Floor_Success : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Go_To_Perceived_Exit_Door : This sub-goal allows the shopper agent to move to the perceived door, if this door is the one determined door in the decision-making process.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule Precondition No_Objective_With_Higher_Priority and Precondition Is_In_Exit_Navigation_State and Precondition Perceive_An_Exit_Door : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed; there is no objective having a higher priority; and when the shopper agent perceives an exit door.

  • Body Action Go_To_Perceived_Exit_Door : This action allows the agent to move to the perceived door it is the one decided upon in the decision-making process.

  • Completion rule Action Update_Go_To_Perceived_Exit_Door : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Save_Visit_Report_Exit_Door : This sub-goal aims to record the door that is used in the previous sub-goal in order to leave the mall.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule : Precondition Goal_Go_To_Perceived_Exit_Door_Is_Success and Precondition Attend_Exit_Door : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Save_Visit_Report : This action aims to record the door which is used to leave the mall.

  • Completion rule : Action Update_Goal_Save_Visit_Report_Exit_Door : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

the next sub-goal is:

- Sub-Goal Goal Hide_Himself : This sub-goal allows the agent to hide itself when it leave the mall. Hence, the agent is invisible for the user of the simulation.

  • Recurrence : This sub-goal is not recurrent.

  • Activation rule: Precondition Goal_Save_Visit_Report_Exit_Door_Is_Success : The previous sub-goal must be successfully completed.

  • Body Action Be_Invisible : This action allows the agent to hide itself when it leaves the virtual mall.

  • Completion rule : Action Update_Goal_Hide_Himself_Success or Nothing : This rule contains an action that updates the sub-goal’s life-cycle as finished with success.

This goal specifies the exploration behavior of the shopper agents in the virtual mall. A shopper agent can explore the mall for two purposes:

  • Exploring for exploration : The agent explores the mall without the intention to visit a shop or specific place for two reasons: (1) the agent does not have any store or place to visit, or (2) it finished visiting all the planned stores or places to visit, but still has enough time to continue shopping. When the agent is in this exploration mode, its behavior is easily influenced by its preferences, and it takes its time during the shopping trip, etc. In this mode of exploration, we suppose that the agent follows its preferred path when exploring the mall. This preferred path is recorded in a sequence of static states containing the identification of the agent nodes composing the path. Details of this goal are not presented in this dissertation.

  • Exploring for search : If the agent wants to visit a store or place, but it does not know it, then it starts by exploring the mall in order to search for this specific store or place. When the agent perceives this store or place, it moves to it. When the agent is in this exploration mode, it begins by navigating in all the nodes of the various paths in order to find the store or place it wishes to visit. Details of this goal are not presented in this dissertation.

© Walid Ali, 2006