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Abbott, J. A., & Faris, S. E. (2000). Integrating technology into preservice literacy instruction: A survey of elementary education students’ attitudes toward computers. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33 (2), 149–161.

Adler, J. (2000). Social practice theory and mathematics teacher education:A conversation between theory and practice. Nordic Mathematics Education Journal, 8 (3), 31–53.

Admiraal, W., Veen, W., Korthagen, F., Lockhorst, D., Wubbels, T., Hernandez, F., Fonollosa, M., Grisos, A., McShea, J., Bennett, N., Davis, N., Jennings, S., Gudmundsdottir, S., & Hoel, T. (1999). Tele-guidance to develop reflective practices: experiences in four teacher-education programmes. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 8 , 71-88. 

AEL. (2004). Review of research: Nine components of effective professional development. Prepared for Texas Instruments Educational and Productivity Solutions Division.

Albrechtsen, H., Anderson, H. H. K., Bodker, S., & Pejtersen, A. M. (2001). Affordances in Activity Theory and Cognitive Systems Engineering. Riso National Laboratory , Roskilde. [On-line]. Available:

Allaire, S. (2005). Knowledge Building Virtual Practica (KBVP) for Pre-service Teachers in a PDS Setting. IKIT Knowledge Building Summer Institute , Toronto.

Allaire, S., & Laferrière, T. (2005). The knowledge-building oriented virtual practicum. Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education , Phoenix.

An, J., & Levin, J. (2003). Online Discourse Patterns: Building an Instructional Framework for Designing Educational Discourses on Networks. AERA , Chicago. [On-line]. Available:

Anderson, D. S., & Piazza, J. A. (1996). Changing Beliefs: Teaching and Learning Mathematics in Constructivist Preservice Classrooms. Action in Teacher Education, 18 (2), 51-62.

Anderson, J. (1983). The architecture of cognition . Cambridge : Harvard University Press.

Anderson, J., Reder, L., & Simon, H. (1996). Situated learning and education. Educational Researcher, 25 (4).

Anderson, M., & Jackson, D. (2000). Computer systems for distributed and distance learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 16 (3), 213-228.

Angeli, C., Valanides, N., & Bonk, C. (2003). Communication in a web-based conferencing system : the quality of computer-mediated interactions. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34 (1), 31-43.

Argyris, C., & Schön, D. (1999). Théorie et pratique professionnelle: Comment en accroître l’efficacité . Montréal : Les Éditions Logiques.

Aviv, R., & al . (2003). Cohesion and roles: Network analysis of CSCL communities. ICALT , Athens. [On-line]. Available:

Aviv, R., & al . (2003). Network analysis of knowledge construction in asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 7 (3). [On-line]. Available:

Baerentson, K., & Trettvik, J. (2002). An activity theory approach to affordance. Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction , Aarhus. [On-line]. Available: ?key1=572028&key2=1779731311&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFID=59537889&CFTOKEN=47458542

Baker, M. J., & Lund, K. (1997). Promoting reflective interactions in a computer supported collaborative learning environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 13 , 175-193.

Bakshy, I. (2003). Israel teachers’ open online forums via web sites – A preliminary interpretative content analysis . [On-line]. Available: %20Bakshy.pdf

Ball, D. L. (1988). Unlearning to teach mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics, 8 (1), 40-48.

Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: toward a practice-based theory of professional development. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Skyes (Eds.) , Teaching as the learning professional: Handbook of policy and practice . (pp. 3-32). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  

Banathy, B. (1991). Comprehensive systems design in education: Who should be the designers ? Educational Technology , September, 49-51. [On-line]. Available:

Banathy, B. (1991). Systems design of education: A journey to create the future. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs.

Bannon, L. (1997). Activity Theory . [On-line]. Available:

Barab, S., & al . (2001). Designing and building an on-line community: The struggle to support sociability in the inquiry learning forum. ETR&D, 49 (4), 71-96.

Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004). Design-based research: Putting a stake in the ground. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13 (1), 1-14.

Barab, S., & Thomas, M. (2001). Online learning: From information dissemination to fostering collaboration. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 12 (1), 105-143.

Barab, S., Squire, K., & Dueber, W. (2000). A co-evolutionary model for supporting the emergence of authenticity. ETR&D, 48 (2) , 37-62.

Bardini, T. (1996). Changement et réseaux socio-techniques. Réseaux , 76, 125-155.

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Barnes, P. (1995). Personal, social and emotional development of children . Oxford : Blackwell Publications.

Becker, H. (2000). Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement. Educational Technology, 40 (5), 5-17.

Bednar, A., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T., & Perry, J. (1995). Theory into practice: How do we link it ? In G. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (2nd ed., pp. 100-112). Englewood : Libraries Unlimited.

Benbunan-Fich, R., Hiltz, S. R., Turoff, M. (2002). A comparative content analysis of face-to-face vs. asynchronous group decision making. Decision Support Systems, 34 , 457– 469.

Bereiter, C. (1997). Situated cognition and how to overcome it. In D. Kirshner, & J. A. Whitson (Eds.), Situated cognition: Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives (pp. 281-300). Hillsdale : Erlbaum.

Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age . Mahwah : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1982). From conversation to composition: The role of instruction in a developmental process. In R. Glaser (Ed.) , Advances in instructional psychology (vol. 2, pp. 1-64). Hillsdale : Erlbaum.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1985). Cognitive coping strategies and the problem of "inert knowledge". In S. F. Chipman, J. W. Segal, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Research and open questions (vol. 2, pp. 65-80). Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale : Erlbaum.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 361-392). Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise . La Salle : Open Court.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1996). Rethinking learning. In D. R. Olson, & N. Torrance (Eds.), The Handbook of education and human development: New models of learning, teaching and schooling (pp. 485-513) . Cambridge : Basil Blackwell.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge. In E. De Corte, L. Verschaffel, N. Entwistle, & J. van Merriënboer (Eds.), Powerful learning environments: Unravelling basic components and dimensions. (Advances in Learning and Instruction Series) . Oxford : Elsevier Science.

Bereiter, C., Burtis, P. J., & Scardamalia, M. (1988). Cognitive operations in constructing main point in written composition. Journal of memory and language, 27 , 261-278.

Berliner, D. (2004). Describing the Behavior and Documenting the Accomplishments of Expert Teachers. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 24 (3), 200-212.

Bielaczyc, K. (2001). Designing Social Infrastructure: The Challenge of Building Computer-Supported Learning Communities, EURO-CSCL Conference , Maastricht.

Bielaczyc, K., & Collins, A. (1999). Learning communities in classrooms : Advancing knowledge for a lifetime. NASSP Bulletin, 83 (604), 4-10.

Bielaczyc, K., & Collins, A. (1999). Learning communities in classrooms: A reconceptualization of educational practice. In M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, Volume II, pp. 269-292. Mahwah : LEA.

Birmingham, C. (2004). Phronesis: A Model for Pedagogical Reflection. Journal of Teacher Education, 55 (4), 313-324.

Blanton, W., Moorman, G., & Trathen, W. (1998). Telecommunications and teacher education: A social constructivist review. Review of Research in Education , 23, 235-275.

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Bodzin, A. M., & Park, J. C. (2002). Using a nonrestrictive web-based forum to promote reflective discourse with preservice science teachers. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 2 (3).

Bonk, C.J., Daytner, K., Daytner, G., Dennen, V., & Malikowski, S. (1999). Online mentoring of preservice teachers with web-based cases, conversations, and collaborations: Two years in review. AERA , Montreal.

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33 (8), 3-15.

Boud, D., & Knights, S. (1996) Course design for reflective practice. In Gould, N. & Taylor, I. (Eds.), Reflective Learning for Social Work: Research, Theory and Practice . Aldershot : Arena.

Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker D. (1985). Promoting Reflection in Learning: A Model. In Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning (pp. 18-40). London : Kogan Page.

Bowen, B., Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1992). Computer-supported Intentional Learning Environments. In F.Y. Phillips (Ed.), Thinkwork: Working, learning, and managing in a computer interactive society . Praeger : Westport.

Bradner, E. (2001). Social Affordances of Computer-Mediated Communication Technology: Understanding Adoption. CHI , Seattle.

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington : National Academy Press.

Breuleux, A., Laferrière, T., & Bracewell, R. (1998). Networked learning communities in teacher education. SITE , Washington.

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Brown, A. L. (1997). Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters. American Psychologist, 52 (4), 399-413.

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Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities of practice: Toward a unifying view of working, learning, and innovation. In M. D. Cohen, & L. S. Sproull (Eds.), Organizational Learning (pp. 59-82). London : SAGE Publications.

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Brown, R. E. (2001). The process of community-building in distance learning classes. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 5 (2), 18-35. [On-line]. Available:

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Brush, T, & Saye, J. (2002). A summary of research exploring hard and soft scaffolding for teachers and students using a multimedia supported learning environment. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 1 (2).

Burns, C.M. & Myhill, D.A.  (2004). Inactive or Interactive ? A consideration of the nature of interaction in whole class teaching. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34 (1), 35-49.

Buyn, H., Hallett, K., & Essex, C. (2000). Supporting instructors in the creation of online distance education. Educational Technology, 40 (5), 57-60.

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Calderhead, J. (1993). Conceptualizing reflection in teacher development . London : Falmer Press.

Calderhead, J. (1997). Understanding teacher education: case studies in the professional development of beginning teachers. London : Falmer Press.

Campos, M., Laferrière, T., & Harasim, L. (2001). The post-secondary networked classroom: Renewal of teaching practices and social interaction. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 5 (2), 36-52. [On-line]. Available:

Campos, M., Laferrière, T., & Lapointe, J. (2006). Analysing argumentation procedures of electronic conference transcripts in the context of teachers’ professional development: A conceptual tool. CJHE - The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 35 (4), 55-84.

Carey, N., & Frechtling, J. (1997). Best practice in action: Follow-up survey on teacher enhancement programs. Arlington : National Science Foundation.

Carr, A. (1997). User-design in the creation of human learning systems. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45 (3), 5-22.

Carver, C., & Katz, D. (2004). Teaching at the boundary of acceptable practice: What is a new teacher mentor to do ? Journal of Teacher Education, 55 (5), 449-462.

Casey, M., & Howson, P. (1993). Educating preservice students based on a problem-centered approach to teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 44 (5), 361-369.

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Chan, C.K.K., Lee, E., & van Aalst, J. (2001). Collaborative inquiry of scientific phenomena in a computer supported learning environment. EARLI , Fribourg.

Chang, C. (2001). Refining collaborative learning strategies for reducing the technical requirements of web-based classroom management. Innovations in Education and Training International, 38 (2), 133-143.

Chang, K.E., Sung, Y.T., & Chen, S.F. (2001). Learning through computer-based concept mapping with scaffolding aid. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 17 , 21-33.

Chemero, A. (2003). An outline of a theory of affordances. Ecological Psychology, 15 (2), 181-195.

Chen, C. (1999). A Protocol Analysis Model for Investigating Computer Supported Problem-Solving Activities. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 17 (2), 35-44.

Cobb, P., McClain, K., Lamberg, T., & Dean, C. (2003). Situating Teachers' Instructional Practices in the Institutional Setting of the School and District. Educational Researcher, 32 (6), 13-24.

Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S.L. (2001). Beyond certainty: Taking an inquiry stance. In Lieberman, A. & Miller, L. (Eds), Teachers Caught in the Action . New York : Teachers College Press.

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Collins, A. (1999). The changing infrastructure of education research. In E. Condliffe Lagemann, & L. S. Shulman (Eds.), Issues in education research (pp. 289-198). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Holum, A. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Thinking Visible. American Educator , winter. [Online]. Available:

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1990). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 453-494). Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Conseil Supérieur de l’Éducation (2000). Éducation et nouvelles technologies : Pour une intégration réussie dans l'enseignement et l'apprentissage . Rapport annuel 1999-2000 sur l'état et les besoins de l'éducation au Québec.

Corcoran, T. B. (1995). Transforming professional development for teachers: A guide for state policymakers . Washington : National Govemors' Association.

Corcoran, T. B., Shields, P. M., & Zucker, A. A. (1998). Evaluation of NSF's Statewide Systemic Initiatives : The SSIs and professional development for teachers . Menlo Park : SRI International.

Cornford, I. (2002). Reflective Teaching: empirical research findings and some implications for teacher education. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 54 (2), 219-236.

Corry, M., Frick, T., & Hansen, L. (1997). User-centered design and usability testing of a web site: an illustrative case study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45 (4), 65-76.

Cox, M., & al . (2004). An investigation of the research evidence relating to ICT pedagogy (DfES) . London: Becta ICT Research.

Cradler, J., Freeman, M., Cradler, R., & McNabb, M. (2002). Research Implications for Preparing Teachers to Use Technology. Learning and Leading with Technology, 30 (1), 50-54.

Creanor, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2000). A cross-institutional approach to staff development in Internet communication. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 16 , 271-279.

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Curtis, D.D., & Lawson, M.J. (2001). Exploring collaborative online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5 (1), 21-34. [On-line]. Available:

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Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). How teacher education matters. Journal of Teacher Education, 51 (3), 166-173.

Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation : How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach ? Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (4), 286-302.

Dawes, L. (1999). First connections : factors influencing the acquisition of network literacy by teachers during the introduction of the National Grid for Learning .

De Froy, S. (2002). Building a community of collaborative reflective pratice: The evolution of a self-directed professional development model. Ontario English Catholic Teachers Association .

De Laat, M. (2002). Network and content analysis in an online community discourse . [On-line]. Available:

Deaudelin, C., & Nault, T. (2003). Collaborer pour apprendre et faire apprendre : la place des outils technologiques. Sainte-Foy : Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Dede, C. (2004). Enabling Distributed Learning Communities Via Emerging Technologies – Part One. THE Journal , september. [On-line]. Available:

Desgagné, S. (1997). Le concept de recherche collaborative: l'idée d'un rapprochement entre chercheurs universitaires et praticiens enseignants. Revue des sciences de l'éducation, 23 (2), 371-393.

Desgagné, S., Gervais, F., & Larouche, H., (2001). L’utilisation du ‘récit’ de ‘pratique’ : son potentiel pour le développement professionnel des enseignants et autres éducateurs du monde scolaire, dans A., Beauchesne, S., Martineau et M., Tardif, (dir.), La recherche en éducation et le développement de la pratique professionnelle en enseignement , (p. 203 – 223). Sherbrooke : Éditions du CRP.

DeWert, M., Babinski, L., & Jones, B. (). Safe passages : Providing online support to beginning teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 54 (4), 311-320.

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Donohue, C., & Neugebauer, R. (2004). Innovations in E-learning: New Promise for Professional Development. YC Young Children, 59 (3), 22-25.

Doubler, S., Laferrière, T., Lamon, M., Rose, R., Jay, M., Hass, N., Polin, L., & Schlager, M. (2000). The next generation of teacher online learning: A developmental continuum. Center for Innovative Learning Technologies, SRI, Menlo Park, CA. [On-line]. Available:

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Hamel, C., & Allaire, S. (2005). Scaffolding to support the progressive discourse of in-service teachers in an educational reform context. IKIT Knowledge Building Summer Institute , Toronto.

Hammerness, K. (2003). Learning to hope, or hoping to learn: The role of vision in the early professional lives of teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 54 (1), 43-56.

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