Collection Mémoires et thèses électroniques
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1.Brochu J. Prise en charge du TCC: Suivons-nous les lignes directrices? Conférence: Traumatologie: Défis! 2002. Château Frontenac: Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus du CHA.

2.Ghigo E, Masel B, Aimaretti G et al. Consensus guidelines on screening for hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 2005. 19(9):711-24.

3.MSSS, Registre des traumatismes du québec. 2003, MSSS.

4.Fink MP, Abraham, E., Vincent, JL., Cochrane P.M., Textbook of critical care. Fifth ed. 2005, Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. pp. 1492-504.

5.Kaufman D, Mancebo, J., Corticosteroids in septic shock. 2006, UpToDate Online 14.3.

6.Selye H. A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. 1936. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 1998. 10(2):230-1.

7.Cooper MS, Stewart PM. Corticosteroid insufficiency in acutely ill patients. N Engl J Med, 2003. 348(8):727-34.

8.Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill: A new look at an old problem. Chest, 2002. 122(5):1784-96.

9.Streeten DH. What test for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical insufficiency? Lancet, 1999. 354(9174):179-80.

10.Clark PM, Neylon I, Raggatt PR et al. Defining the normal cortisol response to the short synacthen test: Implications for the investigation of hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 1998. 49(3):287-92.

11.Annane D, Sebille V, Troche G et al. A 3-level prognostic classification in septic shock based on cortisol levels and cortisol response to corticotropin. JAMA, 2000. 283(8):1038-45.

12.Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA, 2002. 288(7):862-71.

13.Loisa P, Uusaro A, Ruokonen E. A single adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test does not reveal adrenal insufficiency in septic shock. Anesth Analg, 2005. 101(6):1792-8.

14.Bouachour G, Roy PM, Guiraud MP. The repetitive short corticotropin stimulation test in patients with septic shock. Ann Intern Med, 1995. 123(12):962-3.

15.Richards ML, Caplan RH, Wickus GG et al. The rapid low-dose (1 microgram) cosyntropin test in the immediate postoperative period: Results in elderly subjects after major abdominal surgery. Surgery, 1999. 125(4):431-40.

16.Broide J, Soferman R, Kivity S et al. Low-dose adrenocorticotropin test reveals impaired adrenal function in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1995. 80(4):1243-6.

17.Mayenknecht J, Diederich S, Bahr V et al. Comparison of low and high dose corticotropin stimulation tests in patients with pituitary disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1998. 83(5):1558-62.

18.Abdu TA, Elhadd TA, Neary R, Clayton RN. Comparison of the low dose short synacthen test (1 microg), the conventional dose short synacthen test (250 microg), and the insulin tolerance test for assessment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with pituitary disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1999. 84(3):838-43.

19.Streeten DH, Anderson GH, Jr., Bonaventura MM. The potential for serious consequences from misinterpreting normal responses to the rapid adrenocorticotropin test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996. 81(1):285-90.

20.Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Adrenal insufficiency during septic shock. Crit Care Med, 2003. 31(1):141-5.

21.Yaegashi M, Boujoukos AJ. The low-dose acth test in the icu: Not ready for prime time. Crit Care, 2006. 10(4):313.

22.Hamrahian AH, Oseni, T.S., Arafah, B.M. Measurements of serum free cortisol in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med, 2004. 350(16):1629-38.

23.Gabay CK, I. Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med, 1999. 340(6):448-54.

24.Ho JT, Al-Musalhi H, Chapman MJ et al. Septic shock and sepsis: A comparison of total and free plasma cortisol levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006. 91(1):105-14.

25.den Brinker M. Adrenal insufficiency in meningococcal sepsis: Bioavailable cortisol levels and impact of interleukin-6 levels and intubation with etomidate on adrenal function and mortality. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2005. 90(9):5110-7.

26.Annane D, Briegel, J., Keh, D., Moreno, R., Singer, M., Sprung, C.L. Clinical equipoise remains for issues of adrenocorticotropic hormone administration, cortisol testing, and therapeutic use of hydrocortisone. Crit Care Med, 2003. 31(8):2250-3.

27.LaRosa S. Use of corticosteroids in the sepsis syndrome: What do we know now? Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 2005. 72(12):1121-7.

28.Li J, Murphy-Lavoie H, Bugas C et al. Complications of emergency intubation with and without paralysis. Am J Emerg Med, 1999. 17(2):141-3.

29.Dufour DG, Larose DL, Clement SC. Rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department. J Emerg Med, 1995. 13(5):705-10.

30.Sakles JC, Laurin EG, Rantapaa AA, Panacek EA. Airway management in the emergency department: A one-year study of 610 tracheal intubations. Ann Emerg Med, 1998. 31(3):325-32.

31.Bergen JM, Smith DC. A review of etomidate for rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department. J Emerg Med, 1997. 15(2):221-30.

32.Walls R, Manual of emergency airway management. Companion manual to the national emergency airway management course, ed. L.R. Walls RM, Murphy MF, Schneider RE. 2000, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 240.

33.Marx J, Rosen's emergency medicine: Concepts and clinical practice. 5th edition ed. 2002, St. Louis: Mosby.

34.Giese JL, Stanley TH. Etomidate: A new intravenous anesthetic induction agent. Pharmacotherapy, 1983. 3(5):251-8.

35.Wadbrook PS. Advances in airway pharmacology. Emerging trends and evolving controversy. Emerg Med Clin North Am, 2000. 18(4):767-88.

36.Yeung J, Zed, PJ. A review of etomidate for rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department. CJEM, 2002. 4(3).

37.AANS, Management and prognosis of severe traumatic brain injury, in American association of neurological surgeons, joint section on neurotrauma and critical care. 2000, Brain Trauma Foundation. p. 116.

38.Zed PJ, Abu-Laban RB, Harrison DW. Intubating conditions and hemodynamic effects of etomidate for rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department: An observational cohort study. Acad Emerg Med, 2006. 13(4):378-83.

39.Ledingham IM, Watt I. Influence of sedation on mortality in critically ill multiple trauma patients. Lancet, 1983. 1(8336):1270.

40.Allolio B, Dorr H, Stuttmann R et al. Effect of a single bolus of etomidate upon eight major corticosteroid hormones and plasma acth. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 1985. 22(3):281-6.

41.Wagner RL, White PF, Kan PB et al. Inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis by the anesthetic etomidate. N Engl J Med, 1984. 310(22):1415-21.

42.Wagner RL, White PF. Etomidate inhibits adrenocortical function in surgical patients. Anesthesiology, 1984. 61(6):647-51.

43.Fellows IW, Bastow MD, Byrne AJ, Allison SP. Adrenocortical suppression in multiply injured patients: A complication of etomidate treatment. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 1983. 287(6408):1835-7.

44.Fellows IW, Byrne AJ, Allison SP. Adrenocortical suppression with etomidate. Lancet, 1983. 2(8340):54-5.

45.Fellows IW, Yeoman PM, Selby C, Byrne AJ. The effect of anaesthetic induction with etomidate on the endocrine response to surgical trauma. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 1985. 2(3):285-90.

46.Oglesby AJ. Should etomidate be the induction agent of choice for rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department? Emerg Med J, 2004. 21(6):655-9.

47.Burton JH. Etomidate. Acad Emerg Med, 1995. 2(1):72-4.

48.Sokolove PE, Price DD, Okada P. The safety of etomidate for emergency rapid sequence intubation of pediatric patients. Pediatr Emerg Care, 2000. 16(1):18-21.

49.Willman E, Litchfield, A., Andolfatto, G. Etomidate and rapid sequence intubation. CJEM, 2005. 7(1):4.

50.Sagarin MJ, Barton ED, Chng YM, Walls RM. Airway management by us and canadian emergency medicine residents: A multicenter analysis of more than 6,000 endotracheal intubation attempts. Ann Emerg Med, 2005. 46(4):328-36.

51.Sivilotti M. You need tube, me give one amp of etomidate and sux. CJEM, 2006. 8(5):351-3.

52.Sivilotti ML, Filbin MR, Murray HE et al. Does the sedative agent facilitate emergency rapid sequence intubation? Acad Emerg Med, 2003. 10(6):612-20. Jong FH, Mallios C, Jansen C et al. Etomidate suppresses adrenocortical function by inhibition of 11 beta-hydroxylation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1984. 59(6):1143-7.

54.Fragen RJ, Shanks CA, Molteni A, Avram MJ. Effects of etomidate on hormonal responses to surgical stress. Anesthesiology, 1984. 61(6):652-6.

55.Absalom A, Pledger D, Kong A. Adrenocortical function in critically ill patients 24h after a single dose of etomidate. Anaesthesia, 1999. 54(9):861-7.

56.Schenarts CL, Burton JH, Riker RR. Adrenocortical dysfunction following etomidate induction in emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med, 2001. 8(1):1-7.

57.Diago MC, Amado JA, Otero M, Lopez-Cordovilla JJ. Anti-adrenal action of a subanaesthetic dose of etomidate. Anaesthesia, 1988. 43(8):644-5.

58.Nieman LK, Inhibitors of glucocorticoid biosynthesis or action. 2006, UpToDate online 14.2.

59.Dorr HG, Kuhnle U, Holthausen H et al. Etomidate: A selective adrenocortical 11 beta-hydroxylase inhibitor. Klin Wochenschr, 1984. 62(21):1011-3.

60.Duthie DJ, Fraser R, Nimmo WS. Effect of induction of anaesthesia with etomidate on corticosteroid synthesis in man. Br J Anaesth, 1985. 57(2):156-9.

61.Fraser R, Watt I, Gray CE et al. The effect of etomidate on adrenocortical function in dogs before and during hemorrhagic shock. Endocrinology, 1984. 115(6):2266-70.

62.Kenyon CJ, Young J, Gray CE, Fraser R. Inhibition by etomidate of steroidogenesis in isolated bovine adrenal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1984. 58(5):947-9.

63.Lamberts SW, Bons EG, Bruining HA, de Jong FH. Differential effects of the imidazole derivatives etomidate, ketoconazole and miconazole and of metyrapone on the secretion of cortisol and its precursors by human adrenocortical cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1987. 240(1):259-64.

64.De Coster R, Beerens D, Haelterman C, Wouters L. Effects of etomidate on cortisol biosynthesis in isolated guinea-pig adrenal cells: Comparison with metyrapone. J Endocrinol Invest, 1985. 8(3):199-202.

65.Varga I, Racz K, Kiss R et al. Direct inhibitory effect of etomidate on corticosteroid secretion in human pathologic adrenocortical cells. Steroids, 1993. 58(2):64-8.

66.Wada A, Ohnishi T, Nonaka Y, Okamoto M. Inhibition of bovine adrenocortical mitochondrial cytochrome p-450(11)beta-mediated reactions by imidazole derivatives and mineralocorticoid analogs. J Steroid Biochem, 1988. 31(5):803-8.

67.Boidin MP, Erdmann WE, Faithfull NS. The role of ascorbic acid in etomidate toxicity. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 1986. 3(5):417-22.

68.Boidin MP. Steroid response to acth and to ascorbinic acid during infusion of etomidate for general surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg, 1985. 36(1):15-22.

69.Pirbudak L, Balat O, Cekmen M et al. Effect of ascorbic acid on surgical stress response in gynecologic surgery. Int J Clin Pract, 2004. 58(10):928-31.

70.Schraag S, Pawlik M, Mohl U et al. The role of ascorbic acid and xylitol in etomidate-induced adrenocortical suppression in humans. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 1996. 13(4):346-51.

71.Nathan N, Vandroux JC, Feiss P. [role of vitamin C on adrenocortical effects of etomidate]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, 1991. 10(4):329-32.

72.De Paepe P, Belpaire FM, Van Hoey G et al. Influence of hypovolemia on the pharmacokinetics and the electroencephalographic effect of etomidate in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1999. 290(3):1048-53.

73.Johnson KB, Egan TD, Layman J et al. The influence of hemorrhagic shock on etomidate: A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis. Anesth Analg, 2003. 96(5):1360-8, table of contents.

74.Allolio B, Stuttmann R, Leonhard U et al. Adrenocortical suppression by a single induction dose of etomidate. Klin Wochenschr, 1984. 62(21):1014-7.

75.Crozier TA, Beck D, Schlaeger M et al. Endocrinological changes following etomidate, midazolam, or methohexital for minor surgery. Anesthesiology, 1987. 66(5):628-35.

76.Zurick A, Sigurdsson H, Koehler L et al. Magnitude and time course of perioperative adrenal suppression with single dose etomidate in male adult cardiac surgical patients. Anesthesiology, 1986. 65(3A):A248.

77.Boidin MP. Serum levels of cortisol in man during etomidate, fentanyl and air anesthesia, compared with neuroleptanesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg, 1985. 36(2):79-87.

78.Boidin MP. Modification of corticosteroid synthesis by etomidate/fentanyl and air anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg, 1986. 37(3):213-8.

79.Stuttmann R, Allolio B, Becker A et al. [etomidate versus etomidate and hydrocortisone for anesthesia induction in abdominal surgical interventions]. Anaesthesist, 1988. 37(9):576-82.

80.Crozier TA, Flamm C, Speer CP et al. Effects of etomidate on the adrenocortical and metabolic adaptation of the neonate. Br J Anaesth, 1993. 70(1):47-53.

81.Malerba G, Romano-Girard F, Cravoisy A et al. Risk factors of relative adrenocortical deficiency in intensive care patients needing mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med, 2005. 31(3):388-92.

82.Bloomfield R, Noble DW. Etomidate and fatal outcome--even a single bolus dose may be detrimental for some patients. Br J Anaesth, 2006. 97(1):116-7.

83.Mohammad Z, Afessa B, Finkielman JD. The incidence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock after the administration of etomidate. Crit Care, 2006. 10(4):R105.

84.Annane D. ICU physicians should abandon the use of etomidate! Intensive Care Med, 2005. 31(3):325-6.

85.Bloomfield R, Noble DW. Exploring the role of etomidate in septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med, 2006. 34(6):1858; author reply -9.

86.Morris C, McAllister C. Etomidate for emergency anaesthesia; mad, bad and dangerous to know? Anaesthesia, 2005. 60(8):737-40.

87.Schulz-Stubner S. Sedation in traumatic brain injury: Avoid etomidate. Crit Care Med, 2005. 33(11):2723; author reply

88.Jackson WL, Jr. Should we use etomidate as an induction agent for endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock?: A critical appraisal. Chest, 2005. 127(3):1031-8.

89.Zed P, VH. M, Slavik R, Abu-Laban R. Etomidate for rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department: Is adrenal suppression a concern? CJEM, 2006. 8(5):347-50.

90.Shirley PJ, McAuley DF. Etomidate--misused or misunderstood? Anaesthesia, 2006. 61(2):190; author reply 1.

91.Murray H, Marik PE. Etomidate for endotracheal intubation in sepsis: Acknowledging the good while accepting the bad. Chest, 2005. 127(3):707-9.

92.Hoen S, Asehnoune K, Brailly-Tabard S et al. Cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation in trauma patients: Influence of hemorrhagic shock. Anesthesiology, 2002. 97(4):807-13.

93.Price K, Allen U, Mandersloot G et al. Effect of a single dose of etomidate on adrenal function in patients with trauma [abstract]. Critical Care Medicine, 2005. 9((Suppl 1): P392):S163-S4.

94.Dimopoulou I, Tsagarakis S, Theodorakopoulou M et al. Endocrine abnormalities in critical care patients with moderate-to-severe head trauma: Incidence, pattern and predisposing factors. Intensive Care Med, 2004. 30(6):1051-7.

95.Agha A, Rogers B, Mylotte D et al. Neuroendocrine dysfunction in the acute phase of traumatic brain injury. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2004. 60(5):584-91.

96.Dimopoulou I, Tsagarakis S, Kouyialis AT et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury: Incidence, pathophysiology, and relationship to vasopressor dependence and peripheral interleukin-6 levels. Crit Care Med, 2004. 32(2):404-8.

97.Bernard F, Outtrim J, Menon DK, Matta BF. Incidence of adrenal insufficiency after severe traumatic brain injury varies according to definition used: Clinical implications. Br J Anaesth, 2006. 96(1):72-6.

98.Tanriverdi F, Senyurek H, Unluhizarci K et al. High risk of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury: A prospective investigation of anterior pituitary function in the acute phase and 12 months after trauma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006. 91(6):2105-11.

99.Cohan P, Wang C, McArthur DL et al. Acute secondary adrenal insufficiency after traumatic brain injury: A prospective study. Crit Care Med, 2005. 33(10):2358-66.

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112.Dimopoulou I, Tsagarakis S. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in critically ill patients with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury. Intensive Care Med, 2005. 31(8):1020-8.

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121.Aimaretti G, Ambrosio MR, Di Somma C et al. Residual pituitary function after brain injury-induced hypopituitarism: A prospective 12-month study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005. 90(11):6085-92.

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